Home

Pulumi

Pulumi is an open-source infrastructure as code tool that utilizes the most popular programming languages to simplify provisioning and managing cloud resources. Founded in 2017, Pulumi has fundamentally changed the way DevOps teams approach the concept of infrastructure-as-code Pulumi 3.0 bietet die Möglichkeit, auch Strukturen einer höheren Abstraktionsebene als normale Pulumi-Programme zu definieren und als Komponenten (components) zu verteilen. Das neue Dashbord.. Infrastructure, containers, and serverless apps to AWS, Azure, GCP, and Kubernetes... all deployed with Pulumi. TypeScript 1.1k 399 By default, Pulumi will use its own servers and online portal for your stacks. Whilst the UI for this is quite simple and intuitive, it isn't ideal that we would be depending on another third party for this element of our application. Fortunately, we can configure Pulumi to use a remote backend, such as an AWS S3 bucket Pulumi is open source under the Apache 2.0 license, supports many languages and clouds, and is easy to extend. This repo contains the pulumi CLI, language SDKs, and core Pulumi engine, and individual libraries are in their own repos

Pulumi steht mit der gleichnamigen Plattform, die im April in Version 2.0 erschienen ist, unter anderem im Wettbewerb zu HashiCorp Terraform. Als Besonderheit setzt Pulumi nicht auf YAML oder JSON.. Pulumi is an open-source IaC tool for designing, deploying and managing resources on cloud infrastructure. The tool supports numerous public, private, and hybrid cloud providers, such as AWS, Azure, Google Cloud, Kubernetes, phoenixNAP Bare Metal Cloud, and OpenStack Welcome to Pulumi's home for real-time and historical data on system performance Pulumi orchestrates the deployment, so the project is a Pulumi F# project. FarmerDeploy.run accepts a Farmer deployment and converts it to a raw JSON string. It sends the JSON to the Pulumi Azure NextGen provider (a plugin installed on my system). The provider uses arm2pulumi to parse the JSON template to the Pulumi resource model. The resource model is sent back to the F# program, which. This extension allows you to run your Pulumi apps in Azure Pipeline as a build and release task. Here's how a typical Azure Pipelines build configuration file in YAML looks like using the Pulumi task. Alternatively, you can also use the classic wizard UI to setup a new Azure Pipeline build for your Azure DevOps project

What is Pulumi? Introduction to Infrastructure as Cod

Pulumi is a desired state engine. The engine tracks the current state in a file and compares the current state to the desired state expressed by the Pulumi program. After this comparison, Pulumi uses the differences to create a plan to update the infrastructure to match the desired configuration Seminar / Training Pulumi Überblick über die Funktionen und Architektur von Pulumi &nbs. CLI, Laufzeit, Bibliotheken und gehosteter Dienst; Verstehen von Stacks; Wie Pulumi Zustände speichert und Gleichzeitigkeit verwaltet; Einrichten von Pulumi. Linux, MacOS und Windows; Installieren mit Skript; Manuelles Installieren; Erstellen einer Anwendun Pulumi is tightly focused on cloud-native architectures — including containers, serverless functions and data services — and provides good support for Kubernetes. Recently, AWS CDK has mounted a challenge, but Pulumi remains the only cloud-neutral tool in this area Pulumi has potential to reduce the verbosity of infrastructure configuration and enable engineers to tailor it more to the application on demand. Adding a new queue can be done as part of a app release and not handled in a separate pipeline. It isn't fun to wrangle infrastructure pipelines and when necessary orchestrate changes

Infrastructure-as-Code: Pulumi 3

pulumi --cloud-url azblob://<blob-container-name> We have successfully authenticated pulumi with Azure using our blob container as our pulumi backend. Creating a new project: Next, we would create a tutorials folder and create our pulumi project inside it. Run these commands in your terminal: mkdir tutorials && cd tutorials && pulumi new azure-typescript. As pulumi creates a project for. Pulumi's free open source SDK, which includes a CLI and assortment of libraries, enables these capabilities. Pulumi also offers premium features for teams wanting to use Pulumi in production, such as Azure ActiveDirectory integration for identity and advanced policies. An example: global database with serverless ap choco upgrade pulumi -y --source='STEP 3 URL' [other options] See options you can pass to upgrade. See best practices for scripting. Add this to a PowerShell script or use a Batch script with tools and in places where you are calling directly to Chocolatey. If you are integrating, keep in mind enhanced exit codes. If you do use a PowerShell script, use the following to ensure bad exit codes. Pulumi is a declarative infrastructure as code tool. And it's core engine will 'build' your desired infrastructure, and keep track of its state. Projects and stacks. You start with something called a Project. The project folder is controlled via a Pulumi.yml file looking something like this, where name and runtime are mandatory. name: core-infra runtime: dotnet description: my very first. Pulumi's Infrastructure as Code SDK is the easiest way to create and deploy cloud software that use containers, serverless functions, hosted services, and infrastructure, on any cloud.. Simply write code in your favorite language and Pulumi automatically provisions and manages your AWS, Azure, Google Cloud Platform, and/or Kubernetes resources, using an infrastructure-as-code approach

I'm using Pulumi to create AWS Security Groups and I want to store `cidr_blocks:` input, which is a list, in a variable per stack since it will contain different values. This information appears to be stored in the .yaml file that is created per stack, and that information from what I can gather is created by using the `pulumi config set` command, but that doesn't seem to work. Manually. Pulumi has the concept of a magic function. It's a closure that will be packaged into a Lambda or cloud function, and it can reference elements of the infrastructure. These elements are resolved at provisioning time, so they are not dynamic, even though they are as flexible as if they were. import * as aws from '@pulumi/aws' const inputBucket. Pulumi property testing. It's only when the tests pass that deployment will proceed. This way you can ensure the created resources on the cloud are compliant with your project's requirements

Pulumi · GitHu

Submit a request, and we'll respond as quickly as we can. Submit a Request; View System Status; Pulumi Pulumi verspricht Admins und Entwicklern eine einheitliche Schnittstelle und Oberfläche für die Orchestrierung verschiedener Clouds und von Kubernetes. Unter dem Begriff Cloud fassen Admins und Entwickler mittlerweile eine ganze Reihe von technischen Ansätzen und Konzepten zusammen, die ursprünglich nicht zur Definition der Cloud gehörten. Anfangs verstand man unter einer Cloud klassische. Pulumi distinguishes itself by allowing configurations to be written in TypeScript/JavaScript, Python and Go — no markup language or templating required. Pulumi is tightly focused on cloud-native architectures — including containers, serverless functions and data services — and provides good support for Kubernetes Earlier this month, Pulumi announced the addition of .NET Core to their supported languages. Pulumi is an open-source tool that allows the creation, deployment, and management of infrastructure as co

Pulumi's tools support all versions of an Azure API, so your code and infrastructure don't need to change until Azure deprecates the version you're currently using. If a new service arrives. Pulumi ist eine großartige Lösung für Teams, die die Zusammenarbeit verbessern, Engpässe beim Infrastrukturmanagement minimieren und ihre CI / CD-Pipelines beschleunigen möchten. Besuchen Sie die Seite Bare Metal Cloud ! um mehr über die Plattform und ihre Integrationen zu erfahren. Über Pulumi . Pulumis moderne Infrastruktur als Code-Plattform liefert cloud Engineering-Superkräfte. Pulumi however seems to go for an all-in-one approach lately. It for example now comes with secret management included and while HashiCorp offers Vault for that, it tends to keep the tools separate, so users are free to pick and mix. Asked about why they are drawn to Pulumi, users mainly cite the variety of supported languages. While HashiCorp.

This Pulumi script leverages this in two ways: To set the instance (and therefore host) name as part of metadata.yaml (which is subject to string replacement) To execute a command on boot that initialises the K3s cluster (Or join an existing cluster for subsequent nodes) as part of userdata.yam Pulumi Corporation | 2,481 followers on LinkedIn. Modern Infrastructure as Code. Open source, any cloud, any language. | Pulumi's Modern Infrastructure as Code platform delivers cloud engineering.

deploy vscode on aws fargate with pulumi | Blake Green

Getting Started With Pulumi - Scott Logi

  1. Pulumi also announced a new Automation API that makes it possible to embed infrastructure automation into larger programs by using Pulumi as a library. Through this, infrastructure engineers can.
  2. Pulumi is an infrastructure as code solution that lets you define your infrastructure in a language you're already familiar with, for instance, Go, Python, or JavaScript.. In this post, I show you how to create an Azure resource group using a Pulumi project written in Go (Golang), and how to deploy it with Octopus Deploy
  3. g languages and tools like TypeScript, Node.js, and Visual Studio Code. If you're a developer looking for a foothold into the cloud, this book is for you. The Pulumi Book will teach you everything.
  4. Pulumi - Modern Infrastructure as Code To begin working with Pulumi, run the `pulumi new` command: $ pulumi new This will prompt you to create a new project for your cloud and language of choice. The most common commands from there are: - pulumi up : Deploy code and/or resource changes - pulumi stack : Manage instances of your project - pulumi config : Alter your stack's configuration or.
  5. Pulumi.dev.yaml - This is our stack configuration ; _main_.py - This is where our Pulumi code that defines our resources will live ; Creating Resources. Now that we have created our project and our stack, let's take a look in our _main_.py file. An Azure Python Pulumi program import pulumi from pulumi_azure import core, storage # Create an Azure Resource Group resource_group = core.

Pulumi have also recently released a slew of new Kubernetes components such as a tool to convert YAML to Pulumi code, a Kubernetes operator for deploying Pulumi code and the ability to define custom resource definitions in Pulumi. If you are working with Kubernetes, then Pulumi has a lot of really nice features Pulumi is an open-source multi-language and multi-cloud development platform, which allows you to manage your whole cloud infrastructure, like VMs, networking, databases, modern architectures. Pulumi will also continue to improve and extent language support. Before adding new languages, the focus is on improving existing language support: Python support now includes static type checkers and the Go libraries are smaller and so faster to load. Pulumi 4.0 will include new languages: PowerShell, JVM and Ruby. You can use Pulumi with PowerShell, it's just the API's aren't. Seattle-based Pulumi, one of the newer startups in the infrastructure-as-code space, today announced that it has raised a $37.5 million Series B funding round led by NEA. Previous investors. Pulumi's new executives share what they learned at AWS. Wampold was the first head of marketing at the Seattle-based startup Chef, which has since been acquired by Progress. After six years at.

Pulumi will append a unique identifier to the name, so the actually provisioned group will be named e.g. myrg65fb103e. This value will materialize inside Output type only at deployment time, and then it will get propagated to Input by Pulumi. There is also a nice way to return the end values of Output's from Pulumi program. Let's say we define an App Service: const app = new azure. Our pulumi up command shows that our resource was created, and gives us a link to the actual stack within the Pulumi website that we can view the history. Let's fast forward onto a more complex example! Creating a Virtual Machine with Pulumi. There are a number of values we need to satisfy in order to create a Virtual Machine with Pulumi Resource Pool; Datastore; Folders; Template (for. Pulumi announced the release of version 2.0 of their open source infrastructure as code platform. This release includes a new policy as code system called CrossGuard. Also included are improvements f Pulumi is a Seattle-based cloud engineering company that offers a way to build, connect, and run modern cloud applications. Pulumi provides the cloud development model: helping Development and DevOps teams get their code to the cloud quickly and collaboratively. Pulumi provides frameworks and libraries to define, deploy, and manage cloud services -- from serverless to container to virtual.

GitHub - pulumi/pulumi: Pulumi - Modern Infrastructure as

  1. Pulumi will ask us if we would like to apply changes: Once we select yes, Pulumi starts creating resources in the Azure cloud. Once resources are created Pulumi will display status in the console: We can sign in to the Azure portal and verify if resource group with resources is created: We can open Web App URL and check the result: Summary. In this article I presented how to use Pulumi.
  2. Pulumi Provider for Proxmox. A Pulumi Provider which adds support for Proxmox solutions. based on danitso/terraform-provider-proxmox, read its docs for details.. TODO <input type=checkbox disabled= /> fix Bug: cannot read configuration from EnvVars PROXMOX_VE_ENDPOINT PROXMOX_VE_USERNAME etc. <input type=checkbox disabled= /> fix github actions, build and upload resource plugin to.
  3. g languages. It is like Terraform, but without HCL.#pulumi #infrastructure #..
  4. In this book, you'll learn Pulumi from the ground up by writing several practical applications in TypeScript and deploying them with Amazon Web Services. In keeping with the tradition of Manning's In Action series, you'll start simple at first, getting acquainted with Pulumi's features and developing a good mental model of how Pulumi works and how to use it effectively. In parts two.
  5. $ pulumi new aws-go --name yetiops-blog-aws-staging This command will walk you through creating a new Pulumi project. Enter a value or leave blank to accept the (default), and press <ENTER>.Press ^C at any time to quit

You can't escape Pulumi and other IaC tools Allowing developers to call APIs across dozens of cloud and SaaS providers in the language of their choice, Pulumi promises to help enterprises. The Pulumi Platform is the easiest way for teams and individuals to create, deploy, and manage multi-cloud software, using familiar languages and tools you a.. Pulumi's modern infrastructure as code platform empowers cloud engineering teams to work better together to ship faster with confidence, using open source and the world's most popular programming languages. Pulumi's SaaS product enables a consistent workflow for delivering and securing applications and infrastructure on any cloud—public, private, or hybrid—including AWS, Azure, GCP. Hier sollte eine Beschreibung angezeigt werden, diese Seite lässt dies jedoch nicht zu

Pulumi.yaml index.ts node_modules package-lock.json package.json tsconfig.json The primary file you'll be editing is index.ts. Although this tutorial only uses this single file, you can organize your project any way you see fit using Node.js modules. This tutorial also describes one step at a time, leveraging the fact that Pulumi can detect and incrementally deploy only what has changed. If. Terraform vs CloudFormation vs Pulumi vs AWS CDK. 08 May, 2021 infrastructure as code. LinkedIn Twitter Facebook Mail. Want to get up and running fast on AWS? Contact us today for a free consultation. More companies host their IT infrastructures on the cloud, but what's the best way to manage that process? Infrastructure as Code or IaC is tied with the DevOps revolution. It provides an agile.

Containerisierung: Pulumi erweitert das Open-Source

  1. g is here. The specific issue here is that logical names cannot be constructed from other resource outputs. They must be static strings. Resource inputs.
  2. utes using your favorite orchestrator. Serverless - Stand up a serverless API or event handler in 5
  3. A Pulumi package for creating and managing Microsoft Azure cloud resources. Package Manager .NET CLI PackageReference Paket CLI Script & Interactive Cake Install-Package Pulumi.Azure -Version 4.1.0. dotnet add package Pulumi.Azure --version 4.1.0 <PackageReference Include=Pulumi.Azure Version=4.1.0 /> For projects that support PackageReference, copy this XML node into the project file to.
  4. Pulumi Corporation, Seattle, Washington. 268 likes · 7 talking about this. Modern Infrastructure as Code. Use familiar languages and tools to program any cloud, and empower your developers and..
  5. Pulumi Automation API, the programmatic interface for driving Pulumi programs without the CLI. There is a newer prerelease version of this package available. See the version list below for details
  6. nolint: lll, interface

Pulumi vs Terraform: Comparing the Key Difference

Pulumi Statu

Pulumi, on the other hand, relies on scripting languages that many admins already know. The Nebulous Cloud. Admins and developers now use the cloud umbrella term to group an inhomogeneous mass of technical approaches and concepts that were not originally part of the cloud definition. Initially, a cloud was understood to be classic virtualization combined with an on-demand API that enabled. Pulumi was one of the first of what is now a growing number of infrastructure-as-code startups and today, at its developer conference, the company is launching version 3.0 of its cloud engineering.

AWS Modernization with Pulumi. Pulumi is an Infrastructure as Code platform that uses familiar, modern programming languages to declare infrastructure in AWS. The Prerequisites workshop will guide you through setting up your Pulumi environment for all the workshops. It's recommended to start there. Chose a workshop from the navigation bar on the left to get started.. A Pulumi program to deploy an ACR in a resource group. As can be seen, the Pulumi version is a lot simpler; it's self-documenting, the infrastructure configuration exists directly within the.

Announcing Pulumi Azure Provider 2

pulumi: 115: Installs on Request (30 days) pulumi: 115: Build Errors (30 days) pulumi: 0: Installs (90 days) pulumi: 246: Installs on Request (90 days) pulumi: 247: Installs (365 days) pulumi: 786: Installs on Request (365 days) pulumi: 78 A Sandbox for Learning Pulumi Published on 5 May 2019 · Filed in Information · 549 words (estimated 3 minutes to read) I recently started using Pulumi, a way of using a general purpose programming language for infrastructure-as-code projects.I've been using Pulumi with JavaScript (I know, some folks would say I should question my life decisions), and while installing Pulumi itself is. Pulumi. Alle; Architektur; Data Science; DevOps; Digitale Kultur; duesentrieb Lab; esentri inside; Highlights; Innovation; Integration; Oracle FMW; Software Engineering; DevOps. Deploying a three-tier-infrastructure on AWS using Python and Pulumi weiterlesen . DevOps. Using Pulumi to put your infrastructure into writing weiterlesen . Kontakt . Pforzheimer Str. 128b 76275 Ettlingen T: +49 7243.

Using Amazon Elastic File System (EFS) with AWS LambdaLevel up your Azure Platform as a Service Applications

Farmer or Pulumi? Why not both! Mikhail Shilko

Introducing kx: Kubernetes for Everyone | Pulumi

Pulumi uses this Service/Storage to keep your current state and history of changes to your stack. So each successful update to your stack by Pulumi also updates this storage to keep track of your stack's changes. There are many options you can use to initialise the Pulumi stack. Local storage ; Pulumi SaaS (subscription-based, Software as a Service) Cloud blob storage (AWS s3, Azure Blob. In a previous post, I covered using Pulumi for Infrastructure-as-Code as an alternative to Terraform. The post focussed on building an AWS EC2 (a virtual machine in AWS's cloud) to demonstrate the differences between not only Terraform and Pulumi, but also between using Python, Go or Typescript with Pulumi. In this post, I am going to cover building machines on four different providers, all. Pulumi Corp. today said that it has raised $37.5 million from investors to expand the user base and capabilities of its infrastructure-as-code platform, which enables companies to automate the manage Installing Nginx ingress controller with Pulumi. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets Pulumi has raised a new $37.5 million investment led by NEA, representing a vote of confidence by the longtime venture capital firm in the Seattle startup's software development tools for.

Pulumi Azure Pipelines Task - Visual Studio Marketplac

OpenStack上の環境構築自動化に向けたTerraform/Pulumiの活用

Pulumi was founded in 2017 by Microsoft, Amazon and Google software veterans and has been a proud member of the Cloud Native Computing Foundation since 2018. For more information, visit www.pulumi. Pulumi for python is broken. It throws that /usr/bin/pulumi-language-python-exec is not found. I couldn't find where this file should be coming from. For now I'm using pulumi-bin package, which does have this file in the package

Pulumi was founded in 2017 by developer and cloud experts from many corners of our industry to deliver innovative approaches to cloud software development. Since emerging from stealth in mid-2018, we are accelerating our platform momentum and product adoption. The team is built on a culture of openness, diversity, respect, and thinking big. At Pulumi, we don't just accept difference, we look. Pulumi is an open source framework that lets you use your favorite language to build scalable and maintainable systems out of cloud infrastructure. In this episode Luke Hoban, CTO of Pulumi, explains how it differs from other frameworks for interacting with infrastructure platforms, the benefits of using a full programming language for treating infrastructure as code, and how you can get.

GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets Pulumi CLI executes the code, translate it to the tree of resources to create, and deploys all of them to Azure: After the command succeeds, the application is up and running in three regions of my choice. Next steps. Infrastructure as code is instrumental in enabling modern DevOps practices in the universe of global and scalable cloud applications. Pulumi lets you use a general-purpose. Meet Pulumi, a Seattle-grown cloud startup that wants to be the development platform for the multicloud era. by Tom Krazit on June 18, 2018 at 5:00 am September 11, 2018 at 4:10 p

Beginner's Guide To Pulumi CI/CD Pipelines Build5Nine

Roundup #59: IHostingEnvironment vs IHostEnvironment, Async demystified, Pulumi, Memory management and GC in ASP.NET Core. November 14, 2019 November 14, 2019 Derek Comartin.NET Core, Roundup. Here are the things that caught my eye recently in .NET. I'd love to hear what you found most interesting this week. Let me know in the comments or on Twitter. Follow @CodeOpinion on Twitter. With Amazon EKS and Pulumi, Tag1 is tackling these challenges to meet the needs of Fortune 500 customers. In this second part of our series on automating infrastructure, Managing Director Michael Meyers is joined by CIO Jeff Sheltren and Senior Infrastructure Engineer Travis Whitehead. They discuss how Tag1 is using these tools to create and deploy entire websites, ready for use, in just a few.

Pulumi provides built-in support for encrypting secrets within the Git repository, so we don't need to pre-seed our infrastructure with secret management. We can leverage the default provider, Pulumi for Teams, which Pulumi has generously provided to the Tinkerbell project. Of course, Pulumi doesn't restrict us here either. We can swap out the secrets provider, or even migrate away to any. Pulumi co-founders Eric Rudder and Joe Duffy were both members of Microsoft's Midori team. Midori was on track to be a new Microsoft operating system that wasn't based on the Windows kernel @pluppens: That being said - there's also the pulumi package - since both seem to be at the same release, it's hard to know which one to pick for complete newcomers such as myself.. In the AUR, by convention (and not by rule): *-bin packages are prebuilt binaries, so you don't need to compile the executable yourself *-git packages will fetch the latest HEAD of the project and compile the. Pulumi is a cloud-native development platform for describing, deploying, and managing cloud infrastructure across AWS, Kubernetes, and other cloud platforms. Pulumi offers cloud configuration as software, not just via a declarative language like YAML or JSON, but instead using popular programming languages such as JavaScript/TypeScript and. TWC9: Windows Terminal 1.6 Preview, Python in VS Code, Pulumi, and more! Jan 30, 2021 at 6:00AM. by Christina Warren. Follow @film_girl. Average of 5 out of 5 stars 7 ratings Sign.

Pulumi Seminar Training Schulung Berlin, Hamburg, Köln

Design studio tool to help you graphically plan complex VPC design, calculate the optimal CIDR range for subnets and generate Terraform/Pulumi code on the fly Pulumi - Store your state in Azure Storage Feb 26, 2020. Read. Azure Resource Graph . Azure - Resource Graph Explorer, your next favorite tool Feb 24, 2020. Read. Azure Powershell Azure Active Directory . Generate an Azure AD Token using the REST API Jan 18, 2020. Read . Azure Storage Azure Active Directory . Login to your Storage Accounts using Azure Active Directory Jan 17, 2020. Read. Azure. Pulumi and similar tools allow developers to embrace cloud services without having to manage them. Developers get to offload the operational complexity of, say, Kubernetes, by embracing a Kubernetes managed service, focusing instead on the glue that pulls together Azure Analytics and Amazon S3 and Google Cloud Machine Learning and New Relic and you get the picture. Instead of having.

Kubespy, and the lifecycle of a Pod, in 4 images | PulumiInfrastructure as Code 101 Workshop - devopsdays Houston 2020
  • Schnäppchenhaus Ostallgäu.
  • Wohnung kaufen Sopot.
  • Kranzlpaar Strauß.
  • Hextech Repair Tool not working.
  • Sesamstraße Rumpel.
  • Mader Essen.
  • HP smart Ausweis scannen.
  • Englisch studieren Fernstudium.
  • Feuerwerk Festival 2019.
  • Oh der arme.
  • Apfel Paradis.
  • Führerschein Dreieich.
  • Ihr Platz de.
  • GELBBRAUNER ZUCKER.
  • Fischsuppe Usedom Rezept.
  • Zeitschriften beim Friseur erlaubt.
  • Café Südgold Köln.
  • Never thought that loving you would cause me pain.
  • Blume 2000 Bergedorf.
  • Art. 4 euerbvo.
  • Bäckerei Engel Filialen.
  • Ben lieder.
  • MAC Yash dupe.
  • VCR Player.
  • Poster Sprüche Motivation.
  • Neubau Eigentumswohnung Voerde.
  • Pano 2 VR Pro Download.
  • Samsung Fernbedienung.
  • Opposite of single.
  • Multimeter Bananenstecker.
  • Geschwisterstreit Eifersucht.
  • Schnur Wasserwaage OBI.
  • Skyrim hide helmet.
  • Tourismus Leipzig.
  • Amalfiküste wandern Unterkünfte.
  • Zugewinnausgleich Wer zahlt Gutachter.
  • MacBook Air Bildschirmschoner geht nicht weg.
  • Nasus S11.
  • Zweitausbildung steuerlich absetzen Eltern.
  • YouTube Vanessa Mai.
  • Delta symbol Excel.